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tian hua fen, 天花粉  (in English and Chinese 中英文)

gua lou gen 瓜蔞根

Translated by: Joe Hing Kwok Chu 朱興國編譯

Pharmaceutical name:


Radix Trichosanthis

Semen Trichosanthis

Pericarpium Trichosanthis

Biological name:


Trichosanthes kirilowii, Maxim, or Trichosanthes japonica, Regel.

Pron. in Japanese:



Pron. in Korean:



Pron. in Cantonese:


tin1 faa1 fan2

Other Names:


tian hua fen originally was called gua lou gen, also called hua fen.

原名括簍根,栝樓根, 簡稱花粉

Common Name:


trichosanthes root, Chinese cucumber root



throughout China, especially in Shandong, Hebei, Shanxi, Shaanxi

全中國,尤其是山東, 河北,山西,陕西。

Properties (characteristics)

root: sweet, slightly bitter, slightly cold

瓜蔞根:味甘微苦酸微 寒

gua lou pi (pericardium trichosanthis): carmel like kind of smell, bland, slightly sour.

瓜蔞皮:具焦糖氣,味淡、微 酸。

Channels (meridians) entered:

lung, stomach


Actions & Indications:

Clears lung heat, dissolves phlegm, for cough with thick phlegm, rid of toxicity, expels pus; for treatment of chlorion epithelioma, hydatidiform mole.

用於熱病煩渴, 肺熱 燥咳, 內熱消渴 , 瘡瘍腫毒﹐治絨毛膜上皮癌及惡性葡萄胎。

Modern Applications:

hydatidiform tumor:

tian zao combination formula: tian hua fen 60mg, ya zao jiao 25 mg ground into fine powder and put into capsules. Insert into vagina once every 5 to 7 day. Treated 7 patients. Those had hydatiform tumors, 5 patients, all healed. 2 patients with chorion-epothelioma (絨癌 ), not effective. Using tian zao combination formula and chemo therapy: 19 patients, healed 13, ineffective 6. Using tian zao combination formula and chemo therapy plus surgery: 65 patients, healed 54, ineffective 11. [4]


Medical Function:

  1. Tian hua fen effects on the cardiovascular system:
    Tian hua fen can increase coronary blood flow. Injectiones of trichosanthes bark (gua lou pi) decoction and alcohol precipitation concentrates on in vitro guinea pig hearts can expand coronary artery and can empower coronary blood flow by about 60% on acute myocardial ischemia and can have a significant protective effect. The strength of coronary artery expansion effect of the different parts of the herb is: Trichosanthes skin> gua lou xiang> Trichosanthes sub> Trichosanthes Ren> Trichosanthes shell.
    Tian hua fen have antiarrhythmic effects.
    Tian hua fen can inhibit cardiac function.

  2. Tian hua fen can significantly reduce heart rate, left ventricular pressure peak, dp / dtmax, Rdp / dtmaxVmax and Vpm other indicators, but also significantly reduce arterial pressure peak, DPB and MAP.

  3. Tian hua fen has expectorant effect. The active ingredient is the total amino acids of the skin of the fruit.

  4. Tian hua fen has purgative effects: the intensity is Trichosanthes Ren> Trichosanthes skin> Tian hua fen cream.

  5. Tian hua fen possesses anticancer effects.

  6. Tian hua fen possesses hypoxia tolerance.

  7. Tian hua fen on the blood system: Tian hua fen inhibits platelet aggregation, and its active ingredient is tian hua fen acids. Tian hua fen can significantly reduce the hematocrit and blood viscosity.

  8. Tian hua fen can elevated blood sugar.

  9. Tian hua fen can inhibit intestinal contractions.

  10. Tian hua fen possesses antibacterial effect on a variety of bacteria, bacteria and Audubon Ang's small spores rubrum

  11. Anti HIV effect.

  12. Tian hua fen can significantly reduce gastric acid secretion and gastric acid concentration, and have anti-ulcer effect, but also reduce ulcers caused by acid.

  13. Tian hua fen effects on macrophages:  administered at low concentrations, Tian hua fen can enhance the role of macrophages, but at high concentrations of short duration it also show enhancing effect but for a long duration (72 hours) it can cause damage to the macrophages.

  14. Tian hua fen has anti-aging effect

  15. Tian hua fen possesses the effects of abortion and inducing delivery

  16. In large dosage and prolong administering it can inhibit the imumme system.

  17. Anti-cancer effect

  18. Inhibits protein synthesis

瓜蔞對心血管系統的作 用:

瓜蔞可增加冠脈流量。瓜蔞皮水煎醇沉濃縮劑瓜蔞注射液對豚鼠離體心臟均有擴張冠脈作用,能使冠脈血流量增加約60%,對大鼠急性心肌缺血有明顯的保護作用 。其不同部位擴冠作用強度是:瓜蔞皮>瓜蔞霜>瓜蔞子>瓜蔞仁>瓜蔞殼。

瓜蔞有抗心律失常作用 。

瓜蔞對心功能有抑制作 用。


瓜蔞有瀉下作用,強度 是瓜蔞仁>瓜蔞皮>瓜蔞霜。



瓜蔞對血液系統的影響 :瓜蔞有抑制血小板聚集作用,其有效成分是瓜蔞酸。瓜蔞可明顯降低紅細胞壓積及血液粘度。

瓜蔞有升高血糖的作用 。

瓜蔞有抑制腸管收縮的 作用。

瓜蔞有抗菌作用,對多 種球菌、桿菌及奧杜盎氏小芽孢癬菌等有一定抑制作用。

瓜蔞能明顯降低大鼠胃 酸分泌及胃酸的濃度,有抗潰瘍作用,還能減輕乙酸引起的潰瘍。

瓜蔞對巨噬細胞的影響 :在低濃度給藥條件下,瓜蔞對巨噬細胞有促進作用,高濃度短時間內也表現為促進作用,而長時間(72小時)後則呈損傷狀態。大劑量可能抑制免疫系統。





Chemical ingredients:


1. Protein (蛋白質)

  1. Trichosanthin (天花粉蛋白)with molecule weight of 24,000, and the isoelectric point (等電點 ) is 9.4, is a simple protein that does not possess phosphorous acid groups. Trichosanthin is being used clinically in inducing delivery and it possesses effects of anti hydatiform tumor (葡萄胎 ) and HIV.

  2. Karasurin (堕胎蛋白)with molecule weight of 28,000, possesses the effects of abortion and inducing delivery in pregnant laboratory mice. It also inhibits the imumme system

  3. α-momorcharin (α-苦瓜素), molecule weight 29,000 and beta-momorcharin, molecule  weight 28,000, both contain 1.6% and 1.3% of neutral sugar. Like trichosanthin,  they also contain asparagic acid  (天 冬氨酸)and glutamic acid (麩氨酸), and do not contain cysteine (半胱氨酸 ).


2. Polysaccharides (多糖類)

  1. It is a source of calories. It improves the imumme system, and possesses effects of anti cancer and the toxic activities from the cells. The multi-sugar consists of glucose(葡萄糖), fruitose (果糖), cerebrose (半乳糖 ), mannose (甘露糖 ), xylose (木糖 ) and small amount of protein.

3. Plant Agglutinin ( 凝集素 )

  1. TK I, TK II, TK II

4. Enzyme (酶)

5. Amino Acids (氨基酸)

6. Others (其他): β-sitosterol, α-spinasteryl-beta-D-glucoside, α-spinasterol- palmitate, -7-stigmastenol-6'-(Z,z)-9,12-octadecadienoyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside,

7. Newly isolated: 1-deoxy-1-[2'-oxo-1'-pyrrolidinyl]-2-n-butyl-α-fructofuranoside and isoarvenin III (異海綠甾苷) [1]



9 - 15 g

Samples of formulae:


chai hu gui zhi gan jiang tang 柴胡桂枝乾薑湯

San Zhong Kui Jian Tang 散腫 潰堅湯

Modern Research:


to be loaded



not to be used by pregnant women or in cases of pixu (speen deficient) or weixu (stomach deficient)。

Large dosages and/or long term usage can be toxic to kidneys.


懷孕或脾 虛者忌用。大劑量或長期服用可能對腎臟有毒

Source (in Chinese):Zhong Hua Ben Cao 中華本, Zhong Yao Da zhi Dian 中藥大辭典。

[1] 2012;14(6):528-32. doi: 10.1080/10286020.2012.672410

Hydatidiform tumor Alternative Names﹕ hydatidiform mole, trophoblastic disease, gestational trophoblastic neoplasia

A hydatidiform tumor occurs when a fetus is not able to fully form in the uterus and the fetal tissue becomes a tumor.


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