Traumatic brain injuries (in English and Chinese 中英文)
Chemical reaction in traumatic brain injuries
During the early stage of traumatic brain injuries, the sympathetic nervous system becomes excited due to the increase of the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and nor epinephrine. After that the body releases catechol-O-methyl transferase, an enzyme involved in metabolizing (degrading) catecholamines (like epinephrine, nor-epinephrine, and dopamine)
Another issue is pituitary problem.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may cause impairment of pituitary hormone secretion, which may contribute to long-term physical, cognitive, and psychological disability. Therefore, evaluation of pituitary hormone secretion, including growth hormone, should be included in the long-term follow-up of all TBI patients so that adequate hormone replacement therapy may be administered.
Hypopituitarism has recently been reported to occur in 35–80% of patients in rehabilitation following head injury. Hypopituitarism causes adrenal insufficiency. Adrenal insufficiency accounts for 30–50% of these cases.
Approximately 50% of patients with moderate or severe TBI have at least transient adrenal insufficiency which may be the result of pituitary insufficiency.
When cortisol, epinephrine, nor-epinephrine, and dopamine become insufficient, the patients may experience depression, cold extremities, r
Blood clots in the brain can cause long term effect on movements, eye sight, hearing, balance. It should be addressed early..
創傷性腦損傷可能影響垂體激素的分泌，而致長期認知和心理障礙。因此，垂體激素的分泌，包括生長激素之核定，應包括在長期隨訪所有創傷性腦損傷患者的以便充分施用激素替代療法。 （降解兒茶酚胺的酶）。 兒茶酚胺包括腎上腺素，去甲腎上腺素和多巴胺。
 J Neurotrauma. 2004 Jun;21(6):685-96.  http://pituitary.ucla.edu/body.cfm?id=47 Problems with website? Please Click here for comment. (Not for inquiry ) Sponsors' Ads by Google 以下為谷歌 所提供之廣告 Qigong (chi kung) Last update: April 13, 2014; 1:36 p.m. LAH
 J Neurotrauma. 2004 Jun;21(6):685-96.
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Last update: April 13, 2014; 1:36 p.m. LAH