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Hypertension is the medical term used for high blood pressure.
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World Health Organization defines high blood pressure as when the systolic blood pressure (the top number of the blood pressure monitor, which represents the pressure generated when the heart constricts) is higher than or equal to 160 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number of the blood pressure monitor, which represents the pressure in the vessels when the heart expanses) is higher than or equal to 95mmHg. When systolic blood pressure consistently higher than 140 mmHg but lower than 160 mmHg, or diastolic blood pressure is higher than 90 mmHg but lower than 95 mmHg is borderline high blood pressure.
systolic pressure >= 160 mmHg, diastolic pressure >= 95
systolic pressure >= 140 mmHg but < 160 mmHg, diastolic pressure >=90 but < 95 mmHg
It is estimated that 10% of the world population suffer from borderline hypertension. In many countries borderline hypertension is now classified as hypertension.
Classifications of Hypertension
1. Primary (essential) hypertension
No obvious causes. About 90% of cases of hypertension do not have obvious causes.
2. Secondary hypertension.
Caused by other diseases, diet, or malfunctioning of the system of the body, like:
A. Adrenal gland tumors
C. Kidney disorders
F. pregnancy or use of oral contraceptives
L. Wilms' tumor
N. high fat and high salt diet
O. high levels of alanine
P. non-alcoholic fatty liver 
Cushing's syndrome: It is a rare disease triggered by an excessive corticosteroid hormones production by the adrenal gland. The main symptoms are: body and face obesity, hypertension, fatigue and bone lack of calcium.
 Clin Nephrol. 1975 Feb;3(2):70-4.
  Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011 Nov;23(11):1011-7. doi: 10.1097/MEG.0b013e32834b8d52.
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Last update: Sept 29, 2013; 11:48 p.m. LAH