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Daoist philosophy, Dao De Jing (Tao Te Ching), Confuciusm and

道家哲學,道德經,儒教與氣

By: Joe Hing Kwok Chu    按此看中文。

 

The difference of Daoist philosophy and Confucius philosophy is that:

  1. the Daoist philosophy emphasizes the cultivating one's body and mind, while

  2. the Confucius philosophy emphasizes the maintaining the functioning of the society.

The classics Dao De Jing represents Daoist philosophy. Daoist philosophers emphasized the training of the body and cultivating qi and promoting the mind (shen 神). This Daoist concept is revealed in the works of Zhuang Zi (莊子) (399-275 BC), the daoist  philosopher and writer, that "dao is to maintain the body, and ultimately is to maintain the mind."

 

 

The Confucians emphasized righteousness and morals (overwhelming gigantic qi). The term qi has many meanings.  When the term qi is used in traditional Chinese medicine, refers to functions of the body.

 

The concept of overwhelming gigantic qi (浩然之氣)was explained through the following dialogue between Mencius, a disciple of Confuciusm, and his disciple Gongsun Chou.

 

Gongsun Chou asked his master : "Dare I ask my master, what is your ability and expertise?"

 

Mencius said: "I understand people. I know how to propagate and cultivate my overwhelming gigantic ."

 

Gongsun Chou asked: "Master, dare I ask, what is overwhelming gigantic ?"

 

Mencius replied: "It is difficult to explain. Qi is extremely large and extremely firm. One has to be just and honest. Then the can be large and firm. To cultivate this kind of , one has to cultivate one's own morals and sense of justice. Do not do bad deeds or you will destroy it. If you cultivate it, with time, it will permeate the universe. Being virtuous will spread virtue (through education) to others, with no limit."

 

 

Note:

Daoist philosophy and Daoist religion are not the same thing although Daosist religion claims that the Daoist philosopher, Lao Zi (Laotse) is their founder. Read this article.

 

Why there are different spelling for the Chinese word tao 道?

"Tao" is written using the method designed by Herbert Allen Giles (1845-1935), a British missionary and linguist, originator of Wade-Giles romanization of Chinese.

"Dao" is written using the official romanization method of the Chinese government called pinyin, which is the most widely used method of romanization of Chinese today. It is a much more logical way of romanizing Chinese.

 

Small qi: the term small qi 小氣 refers to the characteristic of a person, meaning stingy, petty, miserly, narrow-minded and jealous. It is not used as the opposite of overwhelming gigantic qi.

Click here to hear the pronunciation of the word .

Back ground information on Mencius.

“我善養吾浩然之氣”是《孟子·公孫丑上》 中一句話。書中有孟子與公孫丑的這樣一段對話:

公孫丑問:“敢問夫子惡乎長?“

曰:"我知言,我善養吾浩然之氣。”

意 思是:公孫丑問孟子說:“老師,我大膽問一句,你有什麼本事和專長呢?”

孟子說:“我懂人,我善於培養,養育我的浩然之氣。”

接下來公孫丑又問孟子:“敢問何謂浩然之氣?”

而孟子回答說:“難言也。其為氣也,至大至剛,以直養而無 害,則塞於天地之間。其為氣也,配義與道;無是,餒也。是集義所生者,非義襲而取之也。行有不慊於心,則餒矣。”

這一段的意思是講 ,公孫丑又問孟子:“老師,我再大膽問一句,什麼叫做浩然之氣呢?”

孟子回答說:“很難用言語表達與講述它。它就是一種氣,而這種氣,它是一種至極而之氣,惟正直才能剛大,而能貫洞識微,合於神明,通達於天地,所以很難說清楚它。要培養這種氣,就要培養自身的道德與正義,不要作不好的事來損害它,這樣久而久之,則可使其氣,滋蔓塞滿於天地之間,布施德教沒有窮盡。”
 

以上资 料来源:http://www.cpu.edu.cn/Upload/2005081836041598.htm

The Chinese explanation came from the above link.

註:

道家注重個人之修煉: "練精化氣, 練氣化神,練神返虛"﹔儒家注 重講究 "正氣"﹐"浩然之氣"﹔醫家講所講的氣是指人體的機能, 如 "臟腑之氣"。

德 經之第六章:“谷神不死是 謂玄牝。玄牝之門是 謂天地根。綿綿若存, 用之不勤。” 第六章是為修道之入門。

牝 (音xuán pìn)雌性之動物。

谷字於古文上通浴字。 歷來無數學者對谷字與谷神兩字做過無數研究與討論,但是沒有什麼結果。

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